Stack attributes

Parameters of the prekiontric objects are structured information entries used for classification, filtering and searching. The content (values) should be highly standardized to make these operations smooth and effective. Following text describes meaning of the parameters a their values. All the values are stored to history of the smokestack database card with the date of submit to track the changes and development of the object.


Status of the object is a combination of two components – climbing and existential state. Existential state is pretty straightforward – the stack can be standing (existing) or fallen (non-existing). Two main climbing states are devirgated (climbed) and virgin (not climbed).

Additional state is “dryed”. Smokestacks are dryed, when present in the database but not considered prekiontric objects anymore. There are two ways how to “dry” a stack. First includes gnozcation/devirgation mistakes or cases where the decision was subject of evolution. These objects are not deleted from historical and consistency reasons. Second way is partial destruction of the smokestack body when the object is too reduced do be seen as a prekion but still exists (it’s not fallen). Climbing of “dryed” is not recommended and/or is not subject of prekiontry.

Complete list of allowed object statuses:

  • SV - Standing and climbed
  • SP - Standing virgin
  • PV - Fallen but climbed
  • PP - Fallen virgin
  • QP - Drying virgin
  • QV - Drying but climbed

When contributing data to KODA, only actual status is submitted. If the object is spotted, but devirgation follows , only “SV” status is filled in. On the other end, when a change occurs (i.e prekion is demolished) new record should be created as a marker in object’s history.  


Record number is unique identificator of an object assigned when the card is approved. The number series is continuous.

There were cases of duplicities when one object had two database cards and two numbers. When duplicity is detected and eliminated the number assigned to a spare object. Spare object are typically fallen virgins (subjects of prekioarcheology) selected for maintain the continuity of number series and devirgation history.


Class is one of the oldest smokestack parameters. It gives a basic classification of objects using their height.  Original classes are four. For documenting undersized objects of exceptional value fourth class (PT) have been introduced.
One important attribute of the class is, that it’s persistent in time. Class is assigned in the time of devirgation. When prekion is partly demolished to height less than 15 m, the card reads true height, but the class stays untouched. Building up the stack will be handled the same way, but we still didn’t meet such case.


Stackcluster is a construct to group stacks being handled as a single object. It can be introduced to gain effectivity and clarity of documentation. Multiple concrete tubes of municipal heating stations, or steel ones attached to same supporting structure are the clearest cases.    

Finding the excact definition of cluster was not successful through many attempts. The decision is a question of complex experience and precedents in many cases. Key conditions to fulfill should be physical proximity and constructional identity. Brick stacks are out of question then for their natural uniqueness. Significant premise is physical connection of the stacks or equipment (bilighorze) sharing. Clustering should be always done for making the registration and access more clear and simple with informational value in mind.

We recognize two types of clusters:

  • T - Close group
  • V - Weak group

Clustering is marked next to class for historical reasons. The number gives a count of stacks in cluster. Index T/V marks tight or weak cluster.

LT C 20 Ub Mlékárna ... - single brick smokestack
4T MT M 50/1 Kotelna ... – tight cluster of concrete stacks
3V LT P 20/Ub Skladový areál ... – weak cluster of three steel tubes


One character called type gives information about material or construction technology of the stack. We list following prekion types:

  • C - Classical brick (cone, octagone, rarely block)
  • H - Modern brick (step block or block)
  • S - Concrete segments (rings etc)
  • T - Concrete blocks
  • M - Monolitic concrete
  • K - Stone (legacy, not used since 2014)
  • P - Steel
  • J - Other

There are rare examples of stacks made by combination of materials/technologies. Predominant value takes place in those cases and details should be described in notes.


Height gives vertical size in rounded meters when prekion is properly devirged. In other case approximate value is given. Notation 2X means height 20 or more meters (less than 30).

The height is measured from the heel to the blower. Vertical distance to the lowest overground level of the building is included in case of roof-top stacks.


The gallery is important identification mark of smokestack. It’s easy to distinguish RU M 110/1 and RU T 109/Ub from significant distance. The difference in similar silhouettes and heights gives the gallery.  Stack without gallery are called wretches (Ub = ubožák). Tack-pathes around the stack body are not called galleries. Their existence should be mentioned in notes. The database field reads count of galleries in simple cases.

Many of the brick stacks are losing their genuine function in recent times, but are used as carriers for radio-equipment. Adding of modern (non-original) galleries comes along. The parameters can contain two values separated by slash – original and added galleries count.

Ub – no gallery (Ub, wretch)
3 – three (original) galleries
1/1 – one original, one added gallery
Ub/4 – wretch originally, four galleries now


The name along with height, class and type gives the basic identification of the smokestack. There are several notations brought by history however one standard is applied to new devirgations. The name has following variants:



name, municipality
Cihelna, Bodlákov

name could be shorten when object is a part of a smaller municipality

"Býv." name, municipality
Býv. Cihelna, Somrákov

prefix “Býv.” (=former) is added when the object/ground/plant has not original/former function anymore.

name, street, municipality
Slévárna, Písecká, Krumperk

 in larger municipalities street name should be written

name, street, municipality - district (part)
Pekárna, Krátká, Humboltice - Vřesov

name should respect administrative relations of municipalities

original name, name, street, municipality
Býv. Pivovar, Sodovkárna, Dlouhá, Aš

two names can be given when original function is transformed to new one

name, street x street, municipality
Pila, Vítězná x Příčná, Bubákov

more detailed description (i.e. crossroads) can help identification of objects placed on long smokestack-filled streets in the cities

It’s better to avoid block numbers when not necessary. The smokestack is always better landmark then block number. Private company classes (a.s., ltd., …) are omitted.
Municipality should be noted without any exception. In larger cities district name extends the record (NYC – Brooklyn, London – Heathrow). State and country name is added to the end of the name (Anaconda Copper Mining Company, Great Falls, Montana, USA).

Alternative (names)

Other significant names relevant to the smokestack history.   


Detail (“chemical formula”) is a code giving an overview smokestack’s shape and structure. It’s usually used for brick stacks which have more complex look than concrete or steel ones.

Typical “formula” has following structure: base.body:head.

Numbers in the formula match the profile of given stack part: 0 – circular, 4 – rectangular, 8 – octagonal.

Numbers can be repeated or combined when the profile changes.

Examples: 4.0:0, 4.8, 880.0:0

Complete disctionary of used glyphs:

  • 8 - Octagone - eight side profile
  • 4 - Square profile
  • 0 - Circular profil
  • : - Head (separator)
  • . - Base (separator)
  • @ - Multigonal profile / waveshape
  • ÄŤh - Stork nest
  • )( - Megalofobium (cooling tower)
  • ][ - Carbonizer cooling tower
  • K - Cockhead (maltery ventilation)
  • B - Revolving cockhead
  • N - Tumor (circular water tank)
  • n - Tank (non-circular)
  • X - Visible signs of reduction
  • ^ - Rooftop smokestack
  • A - Atypic - nonstandard architecture and/or construction
  • ? - Unknown


  • Standard base (foot+block+cover) is noted by one number. If the foot has multiple stages we write 48:8.8 same as for block with octagonal transition to body. Multiple ledges are not included.
  • Common body is coded as one number. The profile usualy doesn’t change. In cases of rebuilding stack change can occur when old octagone is extended by modern circular extension.
  • The head is usually noted as one number even if there are multiple decorative ledges bellow the head-base. Decorative structures can be noted when prominent.
  • When the stack is partly demolished, we note X glyph at the end of the code (0X).
  • Highly non-standard, decorative or atypical  part is noted as "A" - for example: 88.8A8.8 (a ring)
  • When a tumor (circular water-tank) is present, "N" is noted in corresponding position: 8.8N8
  • "n" signs simple non-circular tank.
  • High stacks made from concrete segment can have supporting "wings" at the bottom ("rocket stack") noted as ¤
  • wave-shape segments have @ sign.
  • stork nest is noted as "čh" (čapí hnízdo) at the end of the code - 4.8:8 čh
  • megalofobium (cooling tower) has it's own special code ")(" with number of sides if not circular  [ ")( 8" for octagonal tower]
  • cockhead (malt-house stack) is noted as "K" prefix, ex: K 8:8
  • cockhead's  "hat" or "bába", it's noted "K" or "B" as a suffix. Ex: K 0:0 K or K 0 B
  • glyph "^" gets into a code if a stack grows out of a roof. It's used as a prefix (^0:0) if the hidden part unknown. When we know the structure under the roof,  position of glyph in the code follows the situation. Example 4.0^0:0 = base and part of a body is under the roof.
  • when the stack is made of two materials, they can be noted in the code (C4P0 - steel tube with important brick base)


The stack's equipment allowing climbing is called "bilighorze".  The most common form of bilighorze are tacks, ladder or pins. These can be enhanced by other parts to make the ascend more comfort and secure (= protection).  When ascend can be completed using combination of bilighorze or have some other oddities the value can be string code similar to detail. Most common bilighorze is noted as a two-letter string:

1st glyph

  • C  - tacks
  • H - ladder
  • T - pins (modern)
  • Y - pins (genuine - very rare)
  • L - stairs
  • BB - no bilighorze (complete or partial)
  • ^ - bilighorze starts on the roof (the stack has not to be roof-top)

2nd glyph

  • C - half protection
  • D - full protection, cage
  • V - bilighorze inside the stack body (inner bilignorze)


CC - tacks with half protection
HC - ladder with half protection
HD - ladder with full protection
CD - tacks with full protection
C - tacks, no protection
2CC - two separate half-protected tack lines
CC/H - the top can be reached using half-protected tacks or bare ladder
C, HD - the ascend uses tacks and then caged ladder
L, BB - the body is accessible by stairs but an upper part has no bilighorze (typically cockheads)
^C - tacks starting on the roof
CV - inner tacks

 Country, pregion, stackhood

Triplet for entries linking the stack to the regions and countries. Country is three-character string defined by ISO 3166-1. Pregion is typicaly region or state depending on a country's administrative structure. Stackhood is a finest regional identificator, typicaly district.


Important record linking the object with municipal cadastre. In case of big cities, district or other name can be added to record making it more accurate.


Geographic coordinates are (with the card number) the only unique identificators of a smokestack. KODA stores coordinates defined by WGS84 spheroid in form of two floating point numbers: latitude and longitude (north and east positive).


Particulars are standing between object parameters and textural description (notes). They describe wide variety of stack attributes, but it's highly unpractical to list them all on the database card. They are generally not known or important in most cases, but if so, they are given a kind of standard nomenclature, meaning and units.